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Robbins School Foundation Raffle Group

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Jose Watson
Jose Watson

19.The Claw


The claw sign is identified on trace/combined DWI as well-marginated, linear, typically paired, regions of high signal situated within adjoined vertebral bodies at the boundaries between the normal bone marrow and vascularized bone marrow.




19.The Claw



In the specific subgroup of 20 patients with radiologically suspected infection who ultimately proved infection-free, the diffusion claw sign was scored definite or probable in 19 of 20 (95%) and 16 of 20 (80%) cases, strongly indicating degeneration. The T2 disk signal in this subgroup was scored high in 15 of 20 (75%) and 11 of 20 (55%) cases, a finding that would have favored an incorrect diagnosis of infection.


The claw pattern on diffusion is a qualitative and morphologic finding. Experience with teaching this subjective sign to clinical readers shows that there is a learning curve. Readers with greater experience apply the sign with greater ease and accuracy. In most cases, it is clear-cut and easy to recognize, even for the recently instructed, and perhaps it is no greater challenge than confirming or excluding the diagnosis of infection with traditional MR imaging indicators. With any subjective signal-based changes based on a physiologic abnormality, equivocal cases can occur. The reader is then left using the preponderance of conventional MR imaging evidence to make the definitive diagnosis. In this trial, a recently initiated reader performed nearly as well as the more experienced reader who had been considering the sign in practice for some time.


A demolition claw has a support, a pivot pin mounted on the support and centered on and extending along an axis, and two jaws each having a hole through which the pivot pin extends so that the jaws can pivot on the support about the axis. The jaws have adjacent the respective holes confronting flat faces. An arcuate formation fixed on one of the faces adjacent the respective hole projects axially therefrom toward the other of the faces and is generally centered on the axis. A retaining formation fixed on the other of the faces adjacent the respective hole projects axially therefrom toward the one face, is radially offset from the arcuate formation, axially overlaps the arcuate formation, and surrounds the arcuate formation. Structure is provided on one of the jaws for preventing axial separation of the jaws.


5. The demolition claw defined in claim 2 wherein each arcuate formation is a circularly annular ridge and each retaining formation includes a semicircular annular ridge and an abutment generally diametrally opposite the semicircular ridge.


9. The demolition claw defined in claim 7 wherein the one outer surface has an axial length at least equal to an axial length of the ring, whereby the ring can be pushed back on the one surface to allow the jaws to be separated.


10. The demolition claw defined in claim 2 wherein each arcuate formation includes a pair of diametrally opposite part-circular ridges each extending over less than 90 and each retaining formation includes a pair of diametrally opposite part-circular ridges each extending over less than 90 and an abutment between the retaining-formation ridges and angularly abuttable with the arcuate-formation ridges.


18. The demolition claw defined in claim 16 wherein the retaining formations each include a circularly arcuate ridge formed unitarily with the outer jaw and having an angular dimension of at most 180.


19. The demolition claw defined in claim 1 wherein the side parts are unitarily formed with each other and the inner faces are so spaced that, when the parts of the retaining formation are fixed to the inner faces, the inner jaw cannot move radially of the axis out of the outer jaw.


Most of the time an imbalance of foot muscles typically causes claw toes. Specifically, your toe muscles contract too far, tighten the tendons and bend the joints. Foot muscles become unbalanced due to the following factors:


Caused by pressure and rubbing, corns and calluses are common in people who have claw toes. A bent joint can rub against the inside of a shoe, and so can the bottom of your foot. Corns are small and round and calluses are larger and have a more irregular shape. They may or may not be painful.


After another miss, the "magic claw" retrieves two prizes and the girls want to play again. Chilli suggests a different game (not wanting her daughters to do more chores badly), but "Magic Claw" has a bonus prize: a block stating that the holder will get bottomless ice cream.


Digital end organs composed of hard, modified epidermis, generally referred to as claws, are present in mammals and reptiles as well as in several non-amniote taxa such as clawed salamanders and frogs, including Xenopus laevis. So far, only the claws and nails of mammals have been characterized extensively and the question of whether claws were present in the common ancestor of all extant tetrapods is as yet unresolved. To provide a basis for comparisons between amniote and non-amniote claws, we investigated the development, growth and ultrastructure of the epidermal component of the claws of X. laevis. Histological examination of developing claws of X. laevis shows that claw formation is initiated at the tip of the toe by the appearance of superficial cornified cells that are dark brown. Subsequent accumulation of new, proximally extended claw sheath corneocyte layers increases the length of the claw. Histological studies of adult claws show that proliferation of cornifying claw sheath cells occurs along the entire length of the claw-forming epidermis. Living epidermal cells that are converting into the cornified claw sheath corneocytes undergo a form of programmed cell death that is accompanied by degradation of nuclear DNA. Subsequently, the cytoplasm and the nuclear remnants acquire a brown colour by an as-yet unknown mechanism that is likely homologous to the colouration mechanism that occurs in other hard, cornified structures of amphibians such as nuptial pads and tadpole beaks. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cornified claw sheath consists of parallel layers of corneocytes with interdigitations being confined to intra-layer contacts and a cementing substance filling the intercorneocyte spaces. Together with recent reports that showed the main molecular components of amniote claws are absent in Xenopus, our data support the hypothesis that claws of amphibians likely represent clade-specific innovations, non-homologous to amniote claws.


Pokemon Brilliant Diamond and Shining Pearl are both releasing on November 19. The games are featured as remakes of the 2006 Nintendo DS games Pokemon Diamond and Pearl. Much like the original games, Brilliant Diamond and Shining Pearl features numerous valuable items you can use during your adventure, including combat. One of these items is the quick claw, which allows your Pokemon to move first in a battle occasionally. By the end of this guide, you will learn how to get a quick claw in Pokemon Brilliant Diamond and Shining Pearl.


To get a quick claw, make your way to Jubilife City in the Sinnoh region. Upon reaching the city, navigate to the Condominiums building. On the first floor of the building, you will find a girl sitting at a table. Speak to her, and she will give you the quick claw. The claw will appear in your bag within your other items pocket. Once you obtain it, you can select it and give it to a Pokemon. The quick claw will provide the Pokemon with an increased chance to attack first in battle.


Alternatively, you can try to find a quick claw on wild Pokemon. However, the chances of you obtaining a quick claw out in the wild is very unlikely. In previous games, including the original Diamond and Pearl games, the following wild Pokemon have a 5% chance of dropping a quick claw:


Claws are common biological attachment devices that can be found in a wide variety of animal groups. Their curvature and size are supposed to be parameters related to ecological aspects. Mites, known as very small arthropods, occupy a wide range of ecological niches and are a perfect model system to investigate correlations of claw morphology with ecology. There is only one study regarding this question in littoral mites but the phylogenetic impact, which plays an important role in the evolution of morphological traits, was not tested. We investigated claw shapes of different Caribbean populations of five species showing different substrate/habitat preferences. We used geometric morphometrics to quantify claw shape and tested for phylogenetic signal within this morphological trait. Even in closely related populations, we found clear claw shapes for hard versus soft substrate, confirming previous findings. Surprisingly, we found no phylogenetic signal within the trait, which demonstrates that ecology (different surfaces and substrates) has acted as one of the primary selective forces in the diversification of claw shapes. Considering that the basic claw design may be the same in the majority of arthropods, our results have important implications for further investigations of claw morphology and its ecological relevance within this phylum.


Claws are common biological attachment devices that can be found in a wide variety of animal groups, from tiny arthropods to birds, reptiles and even large mammals. In many of these groups they fulfill various other functions, as for example digging, climbing or grasping prey1. Claw features, such as curvature and size, are supposed to be parameters related to ecological aspects2 therefore, they were studied in several taxa. Studies on birds and reptiles, for example, demonstrated that arboreal species typically show more curved claws with a greater height than ground-dwelling species3,4,5. Based on these results, claw characteristics have also been frequently used to infer the ecology of fossil reptiles6,7. Most studies were exclusively performed in vertebrate taxa8 whereas invertebrates remained underexplored in terms of ecomorphology, though their majority possesses claws. The few existing studies demonstrated that sharper claw tips have more irregularities to interlock with and hence increase the attachment abilities of small arthropods8,9,10 but these studies did not infer a correlation with ecology. Büscher and Gorb11 performed a sophisticated study on the attachment devices of stick insects and demonstrated a complex complementary effect of claws and adhesive pads and that these structures correlated with substrate surface and hence with the ecology of the animals. Apart from this work, there was only a single study12 demonstrating a possible correlation between claws and ecology in arthropods where these authors investigated mites. Mites represent the smallest arthropods and they occupy a wide range of ecological niches, which means the landscape microstructure is highly diverse for the different ecological groups10. Therefore, investigating their claws may provide important insights into the correlation between morphology and ecology. Indeed, the above-mentioned study12 investigated the shapes of intertidal oribatid mite claws by means of geometric morphometrics and revealed a significant difference between species dwelling on hard substrates, like rock, and species dwelling on soft substrates, like mangrove roots and litter. The former show higher and stronger curved claws while the latter exhibit lower and less curved claws and species occurring on a wide range of substrates show an intermediate claw type. Intertidal oribatid mites inhabit the zone between low and high tide, which means they are subject to strong forces caused by tidal water movement. This tidal flooding causes strong selection in terms of movement and attachment resulting in the remarkable correlation between claw shape and used substrate12. 041b061a72


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